GUIDE FOR ADVANCED athletes # part1
The most that looked among the funds and beginners was supplemented after exercise to stimulate: -anabolism -mTor activation - enhanced protein synthesis - limitation of muscle protein breakdown. • leucine • HMB • Vitamin D • phosphatidic acid • Creatine Consumption of leucine is one of the effective ways to reverse the breakdown of protein caused by exercise in the muscles. Leucine intake has been shown to directly stimulate muscle protein synthesis and ultimately inhibit muscle digestion growth. Leucine intake has been shown to directly stimulate muscle protein synthesis and prevent muscle protein breakdown, which ultimately stimulates muscle growth by activating molecules that detect mTOR nutrients.
In fact, the muscular effect of leucine consumption has been shown in several studies to be most potent after resistance training. * HMB positively affects muscle growth by slowing down the breakdown of muscle proteins, instead of stimulating muscle protein synthesis. In studies showing the effect of HMB on muscle protein breakdown, it was found that 3,000 milligrams of HMB increased muscle protein synthesis weakly but weakened muscle protein breakdown by a staggering 57 percent. Importantly, another study showed the ability of HMB to reduce muscle protein catabolism to actually increase muscle growth and strength, combined with resistance training. Creatine monohydrate is one of the most valued muscle building supplements on the market. Numerous studies during the year have shown a positive effect on creatine monohydrate supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance. This body proves that creatine supplementation can increase strength during intense exercise while stimulating muscle hypertrophy. Creatine also stimulates muscle growth by triggering many different cellular mechanisms, including stimulation of muscle cell formation and associated muscle protein synthesis.
Vitamin D is a powerful prohormone that stimulates muscle growth by regulating the expression of many different genes within the human genome. Some of the muscle-promoting genes regulate vitamin D, which is involved in testosterone production and function. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a phospholipid found in the cell membrane that is involved in many different cell signaling cascades, including a single signaling pathway that stimulates muscle growth. Although it has been clearly established that mTOR is necessary for a hypertrophic response to resistance training, mTOR activation has previously been suggested to occur via the IGF-1 signaling cascade.
However, several recent scientific studies conclusively show that an increase in PA is responsible for activating mTOR signaling in response to resistance resistance, without the need for IGF-1 activity. A study conducted by O’Neill et al. It was shown that incubation of isolated muscle cells with PA was sufficient to induce an increase in mTOR signaling. In the same study, the researchers also showed that mTOR activation by PA was even when isolated muscle cells had the IGF-1 signaling pathway chemically inhibited — indicating that PA mTOR activation came separately from IGF-1 signaling. Another interesting finding from these studies relates to the fact that mechanical stress placed on a muscle cell from weight lifting activates the enzyme phospholipase D, which catalyzes the production of PA.
references: Jiang Y, Singh P, et al. The opposite role of myocardin and atrogyne in L6 myoblast differentiation. J Cell Physiol 2013; 228, 1989-1995. Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, et al. Effects of leucine and its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on the metabolism of human skeletal muscle metabolism. J Physiol 2013; 591, 2911-2923. Nissen S, Sharp R, et al. (1996). Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 1985, 81, 2095-2104. Heaney R.P. Vitamin D in health and disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3, 1535-1541. Norman AW. From vitamin D to hormone D: the basics of the vitamin endocrine system that are essential for good health. Am J Clin Nutr 2008, 88, 491S-499S. Reichel H, Koeffler HP and Norman AW. The role of the endocrine system of vitamin D in health and disease. N Engl J Med 1989, 320, 980-991. Salles J, Chanet A, et al. 1,25 (OH) 2-vitamin D3 increases the stimulating effect of leucine and insulin on the rate of protein synthesis via Akt / PKB and mTOR mediated pathways in mouse C2C12 skeletal mycotubes. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2013, 57, 2137-2146. O'Neil TK, Duffy LR, et al. The role of phosphoinositide-3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of the target substance of mammalian rapamycin after eccentric contractions. J Physiol 2009; 587, 3691-3701. Hoffman JR, Stout JR et al. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness, and increased strength in resistance-resistant men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012; 9, 47.
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